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Thousands of Parisians regularly made the long journey by bicycle to the countryside, hoping to come back, with vegetables, fruit, eggs and other farm products. The rationing system also applied to clothing: leather was reserved exclusively for German army boots, and vanished completely from the market.
Leather shoes were replaced by shoes made of rubber or canvas raffia with wooden soles. A variety of ersatz or substitute products appeared, which were not exactly what they were called: ersatz wine, coffee made with chicory , tobacco and soap. Finding coal for heat in winter was another preoccupation. The Germans had transferred the authority over the coal mines of northern France from Paris to their military headquarters in Brussels.
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The priority for the coal that did arrive in Paris was for the use in factories. Even with ration cards, adequate coal for heating was almost impossible to find. Supplies for normal heating needs were not restored until Paris restaurants were open but had to deal with strict regulations and shortages. Meat could only be served on certain days, and certain products, such as cream, coffee and fresh produce were extremely rare. Nonetheless, the restaurants found ways to serve their regular clients.
For five hundred francs one could conquer a good pork chop, hidden under cabbage and served without the necessary tickets, along with a liter of Beaujolais and a real coffee; sometimes it was on the first floor at rue Dauphine, where you could listen to the BBC while sitting next to Picasso.
The restrictions and shortage of goods led to the existence of a thriving black market. Producers and distributors of food and other scarce products set aside a portion of their goods for the black market, and used middle-men to sell them to customers. Parisians bought cigarettes, meat, coffee, wine and other products which frequently neither the middle-man nor the customer had ever seen. Horse-drawn coaches in front of the National Assembly, decorated with slogan: "Germany is winning on all fronts" Bundesarchiv. The pedi-cab, or bicycle taxi, was still in use in the spring of Imperial War Museums, U.
Due to the shortage of fuel, the number of automobiles on the Paris streets dropped from , before the war to just under 4, Older means of transportation, such as the horse-drawn fiacre came back into service. Trucks and automobiles that did circulate often used gazogene, a poor-quality fuel carried in a tank on the roof, or coal gas or methane, extracted from the Paris sewers. The metro ran, but service was frequently interrupted and the cars were overcrowded.
Three thousand five hundred buses had run on the Paris streets in , but only five hundred were still running in the autumn of Bicycle-taxis became popular, and their drivers charged a high tariff. Bicycles became the means of transport for many Parisians, and their price soared; a used bicycle cost a month's salary. The transportation problems did not end with the liberation of Paris; the shortage of gasoline and lack of transport continued until well after the war. One of the greatest art thefts in history took place in Paris during the Occupation, as the Nazis looted the art of Jewish collectors on a grand scale.
The German Army was respectful of the Hague Conventions of and and refused to transfer the works in French museums out of the country, but the Nazi leaders were not so scrupulous. On 30 June , Hitler ordered that all art works in France, public and private, should be "safeguarded". Many of the French wealthy Jewish families had sent their art works out of France before leaving the country, but others had left their art collections behind.
A new law decreed that those who had left France just before the war were no longer French citizens, and their property could be seized. The Gestapo began visiting bank vaults and empty residences, and collecting the works of art. The pieces left behind in the fifteen largest Jewish-owned art galleries in Paris were also collected, and transported in French police vans.
In September, a new organization, the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg was created to catalog and store the art. It was moved to the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume , a building in the Tuileries Gardens used by the Louvre for temporary exhibits.
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More than four hundred crates of art works were brought to the Jeu de Paume by Luftwaffe personnel, unpacked and cataloged. He selected twenty-seven paintings, including works by Rembrandt and Van Dyck owned by Edouard de Rothschild , as well as stained glass windows and furniture intended for Carinhall , the luxurious hunting lodge he had built in the Schorfheide Forest , in Germany. Confiscations continued at banks, warehouses and private residences, with paintings, furniture, statues, clocks and jewelry accumulating at the Jeu de Paume , and filling the whole ground floor.
The staff at the Jeu de Paume cataloged major collections. Between April and July , 4, cases of art works filling boxcars, were shipped from Paris to Germany. While some painters left Paris, many remained and continued working. Georges Braque returned to Paris in autumn and quietly continued working. Pablo Picasso spent most of in a villa in Royan , north of Bordeaux. He returned to Paris and resumed working in his studio on rue des Grands Augustins.
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He frequently received visitors at his studio, including Germans, some admiring and some suspicious. German treasurer officials opened Picasso's bank vault, where he stored his private art collection, searching for Jewish-owned art they could seize. Picasso so confused them with his descriptions of ownership of the paintings that they left without taking anything. He also persuaded them that the paintings in the adjoining vault, owned by Braque, were actually his own.
Other "degenerate" artists, including Kandinsky and Henri Matisse , who sent drawings up to Paris from his residence in Nice, were officially condemned but continued to sell their works in the back rooms of Paris galleries. A few actors, such as Jean Gabin and film director Jean Renoir chose, for political or personal reasons, to leave Paris, but many others remained, avoided politics and focused on their art.
He refused but did perform for French prisoners of war in Germany, and succeeded in obtaining the liberation of ten prisoners in exchange. Her husband, Maurice Goudeket, a Jew, was arrested by the Gestapo in December , and although he was released after a few months through the intervention of the French wife of the German ambassador Otto Abetz , Colette lived through the rest of the war years with the anxiety of a possible second arrest. In , she published one of her most famous works, Gigi. The philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre continued to write and publish; Simone de Beauvoir produced a broadcast on the history of the music hall for Radio Paris; and Marguerite Duras worked at a publishing house.
The actress Danielle Darrieux made a tour to Berlin, in exchange for the liberation of her husband, Porfirio Rubirosa , a Dominican diplomat suspected of espionage. Some places in Paris were frequented by homosexual actors and artists; notably the swimming pool in the Bois de Boulogne and the bars Le Select and Le Sans-Souci. The actor Jean Marais was officially harassed for his homosexuality, and the actor Robert-Hugues Lambert was arrested and deported, most likely because of his relationship with a German officer whom he did not want to name. A German sign outside a Paris restaurant announces that Jews are not admitted Bundesarchiv, 1 September The Synagogue of Montmartre and several others were attacked and vandalized in From the very beginning of the Occupation, Jews in Paris were treated with particular harshness.
On October 18, , the German occupation authorities decreed, in what is known as the Ordonnance d'Aryanisation , that Jews would have a special status and be barred from liberal professions, such as commerce, industry, thus affecting lawyers, doctors, professors, shop owners, and also be barred from certain restaurants and public places, and that their property was seized. On May 23, , the head of the Anti-Jewish section of the Gestapo , Adolf Eichmann , gave secret orders for the deportation of French Jews to the concentration camp of Auschwitz. On May 29, , all Jews in the Occupied Zone over the age of six were required to wear the yellow Star of David badge.
Arrests continued in and By the time of the Liberation, it was estimated that 43, Jews from the Paris region, or about half the total population of the community, had been sent to the concentration camps, and that 34, died there. Its active collaborationist police was known as the Milice , whose members, above, swear allegiance to the organization. Photo: Le Matin newspaper, 12 April French government officials were given the choice of collaborating or losing their jobs.
On September 2, , all Paris magistrates were asked to take an oath of allegiance to Marshal Petain. Only one, Paul Didier , refused. It stated: "The government of France will immediately invite all the French authorities and administrative services in the occupied territories to conform with the regulations of the German military authorities, and to collaborate with those in a correct manner. Its particular function was to help the Germans in their battle against the Resistance, which they qualified as being a "terrorist" organization.
It established its headquarters in the former Communist Party building at 44 rue Le Peletier and at 61 rue de Monceau. At the time of the Liberation of Paris in August , most of its members chose to fight alongside the Germans and many of them made their way to Germany Sigmaringen when Paris fell to the Allies. The most notorious criminal of the period was Doctor Marcel Petiot. He collected a large advance from his clients and then instructed them to come to his house, bringing their gold, silver and other valuables with them.
After they arrived, he brought them to his consulting room, and, convincing them vaccination was required in order to enter Argentina, gave them a lethal intravenous injection, then watched their slow death in an adjacent room through a spyhole in the door. Afterwards, he cut up their bodies, put the pieces in the well, and dissolved them with quicklime. His activities attracted the attention of the Gestapo, which arrested him in , thus allowing him to claim later that he had been a real member of the Resistance.
His crimes were discovered after the Liberation in , and he was charged with the murders of twenty-seven persons, tried in , and sentenced to death. He went to the guillotine on May 25, The gold, silver and other valuables were not found when he was arrested. In search of the treasure, the house was carefully demolished in , but no trace of it was ever found.
Poster announcing that the Germans will take hostages in retaliation for attacks on German soldiers, August 21, Gallica Digital Library. Very few heard the broadcast at the time, but it was widely printed and circulated afterwards. On June 23, the German occupation authorities ordered all French persons to turn in any weapons and short-wave receivers they possessed, or face severe measures.
Within Paris, opposition was isolated and slow to build. The first illegal demonstration in Paris against the Occupation took place on November 11, , the anniversary of the end of the First World War , a day that usually featured patriotic ceremonies of remembrance. Anticipating trouble, the German authorities banned any commemoration and made it a regular school and work day. The event was also announced on the 10th on the BBC. This part of the day was tolerated by the French and German authorities.
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At midday, the demonstration became more provocative; some students carried a floral Cross of Lorraine , the symbol of de Gaulle's Free France. They were chased away by the police. At nightfall, the event became more provocative; some three thousand students gathered, chanting "Vive La France" and "Vive l'Angleterre", and invading Le Tyrol , a bar popular with the Jeune Front , a fascist youth group, and scuffling with police.
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They charged the students with fixed bayonets, firing shots in the air. The Vichy government announced arrests and one student wounded. Some students were threatened by soldiers pretending to be a firing squad. Other exclusions apply. Get Coupon Code. Note: Exclusions apply. Never miss a single coupon for Stage! Use In-Store. Exclusions apply.
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